小白需要的LNMP搭建教程

浏览: 229 发布日期: 2017-12-18 分类: centos

本文是本人在搭建阿里云的ECS服务器环境的时候,结合阿里云提供的文档和自己编译安装过程中的各种ERROR得来。

适用对象

适用于熟悉Linux操作系统,刚开始使用阿里云进行建站的个人用户。

基本流程

使用云服务器 ECS 搭建LNMP平台的操作步骤如下:

1.准备编译环境
2.安装nginx
3.安装mysql
4.安装php-fpm
5.测试访问

步骤一:准备编译环境

本文主要说明手动安装LNMP平台的操作步骤,您也可以在云市场购买LNMP镜像直接启动ECS,以便快速建站。

1、系统版本说明

1.# cat /etc/redhat-release 
2.CentOS release 6.5 (Final)

注:这是本文档实施时参考的系统版本。您的实际使用版本可能与此不同,下文中的nginx,mysql,及php版本,您也可以根据实际情况选择相应版本。
2、关闭SELINUX

修改配置文件,重启服务后永久生效。

# sed -i 's/SELINUX=.*/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config

命令行设置立即生效。

# setenforce 0

3、安全组设置

在ECS安全组放行需访问的端口和访问白名单,下面的示例表示允许所有IP访问服务器的80端口。您可以根据实际情况放行允许访问的客户端IP。

步骤二:安装nginx

Nginx是一个小巧而高效的Linux下的Web服务器软件,是由 Igor Sysoev 为俄罗斯访问量第二的 Rambler.ru 站点开发的,已经在一些俄罗斯的大型网站上运行多年,目前很多国内外的门户网站、行业网站也都在是使用Nginx,相当稳定。

1、添加运行nginx服务进程的用户

1.# groupadd -r nginx    
2.# useradd -r -g nginx  nginx

2、下载源码包解压编译。

# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.10.2.tar.gz
# tar xvf nginx-1.10.2.tar.gz -C /usr/local/src
# yum groupinstall "Development tools"
# yum -y install gcc wget gcc-c++ automake autoconf libtool libxml2-devel libxslt-devel perl-devel perl-ExtUtils-Embed pcre-devel openssl-devel
# cd /usr/local/src/nginx-1.10.2
# ./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/nginx \
--sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx \
--conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf \
--error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log \
--http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log \
--pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid \
--lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock \
--http-client-body-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/client \
--http-proxy-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/proxy \
--http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/fcgi \
--http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/uwsgi \
--http-scgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/scgi \
--user=nginx \
--group=nginx \
--with-pcre \
--with-http_v2_module \
--with-http_ssl_module \
--with-http_realip_module \
--with-http_addition_module \
--with-http_sub_module \
--with-http_dav_module \
--with-http_flv_module \
--with-http_mp4_module \
--with-http_gunzip_module \
--with-http_gzip_static_module \
--with-http_random_index_module \
--with-http_secure_link_module \
--with-http_stub_status_module \
--with-http_auth_request_module \
--with-mail \
--with-mail_ssl_module \
--with-file-aio \
--with-ipv6 \
--with-threads \
--with-stream \
--with-stream_ssl_module
# make && make install
# mkdir -pv /var/tmp/nginx/client

3、添加SysV启动脚本。

# vim /etc/init.d/nginx
#!/bin/sh 
# 
# nginx - this script starts and stops the nginx daemon 
# 
# chkconfig:   - 85 15 
# description: Nginx is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse \ 
#               proxy and IMAP/POP3 proxy server 
# processname: nginx 
# config:      /etc/nginx/nginx.conf 
# config:      /etc/sysconfig/nginx 
# pidfile:     /var/run/nginx.pid 
# Source function library. 
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
# Source networking configuration. 
. /etc/sysconfig/network
# Check that networking is up. 
[ "$NETWORKING" = "no" ] && exit 0
nginx="/usr/sbin/nginx"
prog=$(basename $nginx)
NGINX_CONF_FILE="/etc/nginx/nginx.conf"
[ -f /etc/sysconfig/nginx ] && . /etc/sysconfig/nginx
lockfile=/var/lock/subsys/nginx
start() {
    [ -x $nginx ] || exit 5
    [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] || exit 6
    echo -n $"Starting $prog: " 
    daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
    retval=$?
    echo 
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && touch $lockfile
    return $retval
}
stop() {
    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: " 
    killproc $prog -QUIT
    retval=$?
    echo 
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && rm -f $lockfile
    return $retval
killall -9 nginx
}
restart() {
    configtest || return $?
    stop
    sleep 1
    start
}
reload() {
    configtest || return $?
    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: " 
    killproc $nginx -HUP
RETVAL=$?
    echo 
}
force_reload() {
    restart
}
configtest() {
$nginx -t -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
}
rh_status() {
    status $prog
}
rh_status_q() {
    rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1
}
case "$1" in
    start)
        rh_status_q && exit 0
    $1
        ;;
    stop)
        rh_status_q || exit 0
        $1
        ;;
    restart|configtest)
        $1
        ;;
    reload)
        rh_status_q || exit 7
        $1
        ;;
    force-reload)
        force_reload
        ;;
    status)
        rh_status
        ;;
    condrestart|try-restart)
        rh_status_q || exit 0
            ;;
    *)
      echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|condrestart|try-restart|reload|force-reload|configtest}" 
        exit 2
esac

4、赋予脚本执行权限。

# chmod +x /etc/init.d/nginx

5、添加至服务管理列表,设置开机自启。

# chkconfig --add nginx
# chkconfig  nginx on

6、启动服务。

# service nginx start

7、浏览器访问可看到默认欢迎页面。

步骤三:安装mysql

1、准备编译环境。

# yum groupinstall "Server Platform Development"  "Development tools" -y
# yum install cmake -y

2、准备mysql数据存放目录。

# mkdir /mnt/data
# groupadd -r mysql
# useradd -r -g mysql -s /sbin/nologin mysql
# id mysql
uid=497(mysql) gid=498(mysql) groups=498(mysql)

3、更改数据目录属主属组。

# chown -R mysql:mysql /mnt/data

4、解压编译在MySQL官网下载的稳定版源码包,这里使用的是5.6.24版本

# tar xvf mysql-5.6.24.tar.gz -C  /usr/local/src
# cd /usr/local/src/mysql-5.6.24
# cmake
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/mnt/data \
-DSYSCONFDIR=/etc \
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_READLINE=1 \
-DWITH_SSL=system \
-DWITH_ZLIB=system \
-DWITH_LIBWRAP=0 \
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306 \
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/tmp/mysql.sock \
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci

若出现如下错误:

CMake Error at cmake/ssl.cmake:247 (MESSAGE):
  Cannot find appropriate system libraries for SSL.  Make sure you've
  specified a supported SSL version.  Consult the documentation for WITH_SSL
  alternatives
Call Stack (most recent call first):
  CMakeLists.txt:446 (MYSQL_CHECK_SSL)


-- Could NOT find Curses (missing:  CURSES_LIBRARY CURSES_INCLUDE_PATH) 
CMake Error at cmake/readline.cmake:85 (MESSAGE):
  Curses library not found.  Please install appropriate package,

      remove CMakeCache.txt and rerun cmake.On Debian/Ubuntu, package name is libncurses5-dev, on Redhat and derivates it is ncurses-devel.
Call Stack (most recent call first):
  cmake/readline.cmake:128 (FIND_CURSES)
  cmake/readline.cmake:218 (MYSQL_USE_BUNDLED_EDITLINE)
  CMakeLists.txt:448 (MYSQL_CHECK_EDITLINE)


-- Configuring incomplete, errors occurred!
See also "/usr/local/src/mysql-5.6.38/CMakeFiles/CMakeOutput.log".
See also "/usr/local/src/mysql-5.6.38/CMakeFiles/CMakeError.log".

执行此操作:

rm CMakeCache.txt
yum install ncurses-devel

接着:

# make && make install

5、修改安装目录的属组为mysql。

# chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/

6、初始化数据库。

# /usr/local/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/mnt/data/

注:在CentOS 6.5版操作系统的最小安装完成后,在/etc目录下会存在一个my.cnf,需要将此文件更名为其他的名字,如:/etc/my.cnf.bak,否则,该文件会干扰源码安装的MySQL的正确配置,造成无法启动。

7、拷贝配置文件和启动脚本。

# cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
# chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysqld
# cp support-files/my-default.cnf /etc/my.cnf

8、设置开机自动启动。

# chkconfig mysqld  on 
# chkconfig --add mysqld

9、修改配置文件中的安装路径及数据目录存放路径。

# echo -e "basedir = /usr/local/mysql\ndatadir = /mnt/data\n" >> /etc/my.cnf

10、设置PATH环境变量。

# echo "export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin" > /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh      
# source /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh

11、启动服务。

# service mysqld start 

若出现如下错误:

Starting MySQL.Logging to '/mnt/data/localhost.localdomain.err'.
The server quit without updating PID file (/mnt/data/localh[FAILED]ldomain.pid).
[root@localhost mysql]# service mysqld start
Starting MySQL.The server quit without updating PID file (/mnt/data/localhost.localdomain.pid).                                            [FAILED]

若重新初始化会遇到这种问题:

[root@localhost scripts]# ./mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/mnt/data/
FATAL ERROR: Could not find ./bin/my_print_defaults

If you compiled from source, you need to run 'make install' to
copy the software into the correct location ready for operation.

If you are using a binary release, you must either be at the top
level of the extracted archive, or pass the --basedir option
pointing to that location.

然后我们接着往下走:

[root@localhost scripts]# /usr/local/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/mnt/data &
[1] 16068
[root@localhost scripts]# Installing MySQL system tables...2017-12-01 01:23:46 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2017-12-01 01:23:46 0 [Note] Ignoring --secure-file-priv value as server is running with --bootstrap.
2017-12-01 01:23:46 0 [Note] /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld (mysqld 5.6.38) starting as process 16077 ...
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pages
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Memory barrier is not used
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.7
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Using CPU crc32 instructions
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 128.0M
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: The first specified data file ./ibdata1 did not exist: a new database to be created!
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Setting file ./ibdata1 size to 12 MB
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile101 size to 48 MB
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile1 size to 48 MB
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Renaming log file ./ib_logfile101 to ./ib_logfile0
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45781
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Foreign key constraint system tables created
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Creating tablespace and datafile system tables.
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Tablespace and datafile system tables created.
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Waiting for purge to start
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] InnoDB: 5.6.38 started; log sequence number 0
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] RSA private key file not found: /mnt/data//private_key.pem. Some authentication plugins will not work.
2017-12-01 01:23:46 16077 [Note] RSA public key file not found: /mnt/data//public_key.pem. Some authentication plugins will not work.
2017-12-01 01:23:47 16077 [Note] Binlog end
2017-12-01 01:23:47 16077 [Note] InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.
2017-12-01 01:23:47 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16077 [Note] InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 1625977
OK

Filling help tables...2017-12-01 01:23:48 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2017-12-01 01:23:48 0 [Note] Ignoring --secure-file-priv value as server is running with --bootstrap.
2017-12-01 01:23:48 0 [Note] /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld (mysqld 5.6.38) starting as process 16099 ...
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pages
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Memory barrier is not used
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.7
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Using CPU crc32 instructions
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 128.0M
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Waiting for purge to start
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: 5.6.38 started; log sequence number 1625977
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] RSA private key file not found: /mnt/data//private_key.pem. Some authentication plugins will not work.
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] RSA public key file not found: /mnt/data//public_key.pem. Some authentication plugins will not work.
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] Binlog end
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.
2017-12-01 01:23:48 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
2017-12-01 01:23:49 16099 [Note] InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 1625987
OK

To start mysqld at boot time you have to copy
support-files/mysql.server to the right place for your system

PLEASE REMEMBER TO SET A PASSWORD FOR THE MySQL root USER !
To do so, start the server, then issue the following commands:

  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'new-password'
  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root -h localhost.localdomain password 'new-password'

Alternatively you can run:

  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_secure_installation

which will also give you the option of removing the test
databases and anonymous user created by default.  This is
strongly recommended for production servers.

See the manual for more instructions.

You can start the MySQL daemon with:

  cd . ; /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe &

You can test the MySQL daemon with mysql-test-run.pl

  cd mysql-test ; perl mysql-test-run.pl

Please report any problems at http://bugs.mysql.com/

The latest information about MySQL is available on the web at

  http://www.mysql.com

Support MySQL by buying support/licenses at http://shop.mysql.com

New default config file was created as /usr/local/mysql/my.cnf and
will be used by default by the server when you start it.
You may edit this file to change server settings

WARNING: Default config file /etc/my.cnf exists on the system
This file will be read by default by the MySQL server
If you do not want to use this, either remove it, or use the
--defaults-file argument to mysqld_safe when starting the server

[1]+  完成                  /usr/local/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/mnt/data

查看以下mysql的状态:

[root@localhost scripts]# service mysqld status
MySQL is not running, but lock file (/var/lock/subsys/mysql[FAILED]

启动与重启均没问题:

[root@localhost scripts]# service mysqld start
Starting MySQL.Logging to '/mnt/data/localhost.localdomain.err'.
                                                           [  OK  ]
[root@localhost scripts]# service mysqld restart
Shutting down MySQL.                                       [  OK  ]
Starting MySQL.                                            [  OK  ]

登陆:

# mysql -h 127.0.0.1

步骤四:安装php-fpm

Nginx本身不能处理PHP,作为web服务器,当它接收到请求后,不支持对外部程序的直接调用或者解析,必须通过FastCGI进行调用。如果是PHP请求,则交给PHP解释器处理,并把结果返回给客户端。PHP-FPM是支持解析php的一个FastCGI进程管理器。提供了更好管理PHP进程的方式,可以有效控制内存和进程、可以平滑重载PHP配置。

1、安装依赖包。

yum install libmcrypt libmcrypt-devel mhash mhash-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel

2、解压官网下载的源码包,编译安装。

# tar xvf php-5.6.23.tar.bz2 -C /usr/local/src
# cd /usr/local/src/php-5.6.23
# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/php \
--with-config-file-scan-dir=/etc/php.d \
--with-config-file-path=/etc \
--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-mysqli=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config \
--enable-mbstring \
--with-freetype-dir \
--with-jpeg-dir \
--with-png-dir \
--with-zlib \
--with-libxml-dir=/usr \
--with-openssl \
--enable-xml \
--enable-sockets \
--enable-fpm \
--with-mcrypt \
--with-bz2 \
--with-curl
# make && make install

3、添加php和php-fpm配置文件。

# cp /usr/local/src/php-5.6.23/php.ini-production /etc/php.ini
# cd /usr/local/php/etc/
# cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf
# sed -i 's@;pid = run/php-fpm.pid@pid = /usr/local/php/var/run/php-fpm.pid@' php-fpm.conf

4、添加php-fpm启动脚本。

# cp /usr/local/src/php-5.6.23/sapi/fpm/init.d.php-fpm /etc/init.d/php-fpm
# chmod +x /etc/init.d/php-fpm

5、添加php-fpm至服务列表并设置开机自启。

# chkconfig --add php-fpm     
# chkconfig --list php-fpm     
# chkconfig php-fpm on

6、启动服务。

# service php-fpm start

若出现如下情况:

[root@localhost etc]# service php-fpm start
Starting php-fpm [01-Dec-2017 02:31:24] WARNING: Nothing matches the include pattern '/usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.d/*.conf' from /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf at line 125.
[01-Dec-2017 02:31:24] ERROR: No pool defined. at least one pool section must be specified in config file
[01-Dec-2017 02:31:24] ERROR: failed to post process the configuration
[01-Dec-2017 02:31:24] ERROR: FPM initialization failed
 failed

执行此操作:

[root@localhost etc]# cd php-fpm.d/
[root@localhost php-fpm.d]# ll
总用量 20
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18517 12月  1 02:27 www.conf.default
[root@localhost php-fpm.d]# cp www.conf.default www.conf
[root@localhost php-fpm.d]# service php-fpm start
Starting php-fpm  done
[root@localhost php-fpm.d]# 

7、添加nginx对fastcgi的支持,首先备份默认的配置文件。

# cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.confbak
# cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.default /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

编辑/etc/nginx/nginx.conf,在所支持的主页面格式中添加php格式的主页,类似如下:

 location / {
            root   /usr/local/nginx/html;
            index  index.php index.html index.htm;
        }

取消以下内容前面的注释:

  location ~ \.php$ {
            root           /usr/local/nginx/html;
            fastcgi_pass    127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index   index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /usr/local/nginx/html/$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }

重新载入nginx的配置文件。

# service nginx reload

在/usr/local/nginx/html/新建index.php的测试页面,内容如下。

# cat index.php 
php
$conn=mysql_connect('127.0.0.1','root','');
if ($conn){
  echo "LNMP platform connect to mysql is successful!";
}else{
  echo "LNMP platform connect to mysql is failed!";
}
 phpinfo();
?>

浏览器访问测试,如看到以下内容则表示LNMP平台构建完成。

Done!

如有疑问,欢迎各位大佬指点、批评。

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